In religion the stronger influences came from the native populations, not from the upper (Greek or Hellenized) stratum.
The words Hellenism and Hellenistic have a long history in which the text of the Acts of the Apostles 6:1 plays a central part because it opposes Hebraioi to Hellenistai. Scaliger) this text was interpreted to imply a contrast between Jews who used Hebrew and Jews who used Greek in the synagogue service. Heinsius developed the notion that Jewish Hellenistai used a special Greek dialect (lingua hellenistica), which is reflected in the Septuagint translation of the Bible. Salmasius denied the existence of such a special dialect (1643), but the notion of a special lingua hellenistica to indicate the Greek of the Old and New Testaments remained in circulation until the middle of the 19 century in Germany, J. Herder used Hellenismus to indicate the way of thinking of Jews and other Orientals who spoke Greek. Matter specifically connected the word Hellénisme with the thought of the Greek-speaking Jews of Egypt. In 1833 he published a volume on Alexander the Great; and in 18 he published two volumes of Geschichte des Hellenismus embracing the century 323–222 He intended to continue his work in further volumes, but never did so, and it is not quite clear from what he says whether his original intention was to reach the age of Muhammad or to stop with Augustus. Classicism notwithstanding, literature and art developed new styles, characterized by realism of detail and a tendency toward the idyllic and the pathetic.
In 1877–78 he published a second (considerably modified) edition of these three volumes under the title of Geschichte des Hellenismus (which now included the reign of Alexander). Modern scholars have recognized local trends not only in literature but also in art.
Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Pausanias, Galen, Athenaeus, and Diogenes Laertius, though all writing in the Roman Empire, provide essential information on Hellenistic science, social life, and customs.
The study of Greek influence on Judaism has developed into a special branch of research on which E. The only continuous account of the Hellenistic age is found in the short summary of the Historiae Philippicae by Pompeius Trogus (end of the first century of Maccabees are invaluable for Jewish history and must be supplemented by the relevant sections of Josephus' Jewish Antiquities.
The Jewish rebellion of the Maccabees contributed to the further decline of the Seleucid state, which was transformed into a Roman province in 64 and ended in violent repression by the Romans.
Later it was defeated and mutilated by the Romans (188).
Euclid, Apollonius of Perge, and Archimedes represent the culmination of Greek research in geometry and mechanics.
Eratosthenes applied mathematics to geography and Aristarchus developed the heliocentric theory, but Hipparchus (who made fundamental discoveries in astronomy) persuaded the succeeding generations with his new version of the geocentric system. Everywhere the new literature and art interested large strata of the Greek-speaking public, which was predominantly middle-class.
Hengel, among others, have written with distinction.
Natural sciences made enormous progress, and so did mathematics.
The works of the great historians of the Hellenistic age (Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris, Timaeus, Agatharchidas, Phylarchus, and Posidonius) are all lost, with the exception of Polybius, and only fragments of his work remain.